By Malika Ramani ‘21
Edited by Jess Sevetson
Imagine putting your hand down on a hot stovetop and not even realizing you are burning. A life without pain – without analgesics, without anxiety – sounds liberating. It is, however, also dangerous – to need someone to inform you of injuries, to be unaware of the fact that you may be hurting your body without even realizing it. For Jo Cameron, this is her reality: the now 71-year-old woman has spent her entire life without feeling pain. It has only recently come to light that her lack of sensation is due to two unusual genetic mutations, and this discovery could lead to innovative treatments for pain and anxiety in the years to come.
Jo Cameron, 2019 (Image by Mary Turner for The New York Times) (1)
By: Ashley Nee, ‘22
Edited by Jess Sevetson
Alzheimer’s disease has a complicated history with estrogen. Two thirds of Alzheimer’s patients are women, and scientists have long turned to estrogen, a primary female sex hormone, in the hopes that further research may explain why the Alzheimer’s burden is greater in women than in men. Studies regarding hormone replacement therapy as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease report conflicting evidence, making the subject controversial among some scientists. However, a recent study supports the concept of using hormone replacement therapy to increase women’s exposure to estrogen as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease/dementia. 
By Erika Nakajima, '21
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women with more than 2 million new cases reported in 2018. While breast cancer often appears as an umbrella term for cancerous growth of breast tissue, this cancer can be divided into 21 distinct histological (differing in tissue) subtypes and at least 4 different molecular (differing in genetic mutation) subtypes, each with characteristic risk factors, response treatments, and outcomes. With this variation, it is increasingly apparent that instead of treating breast cancer as a single disease, targeted therapies, designed with specificity for each unique patient, are necessary.
Written by Neha Mukherjee, ’22
Edited by Ashley Nee, ‘22
While the rise of smartphone usage has allowed for people to remain connected at all times, it has also led to an unfortunate increase in traffic accidents. Distracted driving, which accounts for about 25% of all US traffic accidents, are largely due to texting while driving . A recent study from the American Journal of Criminal Justice determined that the reasoning behind texting while driving could be attributed to low self control.
by Rahul Jayaram '21
edited by Rishi Patel '21
We have all been put in situations where we wish that sleep was not necessary. From college students racing against the clock to finish term papers, to parents struggling to quiet bawling infants at midnight, many of us have probably questioned the importance of sleep and the purpose it serves. Years of research have proven that that sleep has crucial roles in roles in learning, memory formation, toxin removal, blood pressure maintenance, and more  . However, the core cellular function of sleep still remains unknown. In humans, sleep can be defined by specific electroencephalography (EEG) rhythms, while in non-mammals, sleep is solely defined on the basis of behavior, such as posture during sleep and changes in arousal levels with regard to external stimuli. Yet, across all animals there has been no defined marker that can be used to define sleep in a single cell . That is, until now. Recently, scientists at Bar-Ilan University found that individual neurons perform nuclear maintenance, or DNA restoration, during sleep, suggesting another critical role sleep plays for our bodies at the cellular level.
Written by Olivia Woodford-Berry, '19
Edited by Hannah Ngo, '21
From computer scientists studying artificial intelligence to neurologists investigating neurodivergence, researchers across specialties struggle to understand the inner working of neural networks and the human brain. Indeed, despite expansive advances made in the medical field over the last fifty years, there is still little understanding of neurological diseases. However, a recent study by Gargi Banerjee and David Werring of University College, London, suggests Prion diseases may be more prevalent than previously anticipated. 
By: Ashley Nee, ‘22
Edited by: Jess Sevetson
By Ethan Thio '22
Edited by Ishaani Khatri '21
It is human nature to distill our problems to their most pertinent metrics and obvious consequences. We focus on the open wound and ignore the sore back, because doing so makes us feel as if we can make our problems more manageable. But when considering complex issues such as climate change, the instinct to simplify is costly. A Guardian article titled “Our Oceans Broke Heat Records in 2018 and The Consequences Are Catastrophic,” explains that rising air temperatures are the most commonly reported evidence in the media of global warming.  Simply put, rising surface air temperatures are a hallmark of modern climate change.
Written by Neha Mukherjee '22
Edited by Ashley Nee '22
Written By: Dylan Sam '21